QUOTE: “there have been studies by Akamai who found that two seconds is actually the threshold for e-commerce site acceptability. Meaning that that’s what users like to shop with. At Google, we aim for under a half second.” Maile Ohye, Google, 2010
People like fast sites.
And so does Google. In fact, Google likes blistering fast sites so much it is moving websites to what it is calling a ‘mobile-first‘ index .
QUOTE: “Speed is definitely a ranking factor? YES.” John Mueller, Google 2019
‘Site Speed’, we are told by Google in the above video and quote, is a ranking factor. But as with any factor, Google confirms is a ranking signal, it’s usually a small, ‘nuanced’ one.
How fast should websites load? Well, there isn’t a specific threshold, as such;
QUOTE: “So we have hypothetical data and practical data so we don’t really have a threshold to give away but basically the recommendation I would say is just make sites fast for users that’s what it boils down to.” Martin Splitt, Google, 2019
A fast site is a good user experience (UX), and a satisfying UX leads to higher conversions, and now that Google is pushing a “mobile first index“, it is time for those invested in SEO to take action.
QUOTE: “How fast your website loads is critical but often a completely ignored element in any online business and that includes search marketing and search engine optimisation. And that includes page load times on mobile devices: The average time it takes to fully load a mobile landing page is 22 seconds, according to a new analysis. Yet 53% of visits are abandoned if a mobile site takes longer than three seconds to load. That’s a big problem.” Dainial An, Google, 2017
Very slow sites are a bad user experience – and Google is all about good UX these days.
The fact is, a faster website is a net-positive to everyone, from Google to your customer. If you have a web-team and don’t know what else to do (and you’ve maximised other areas of opportunity for the time being) instruct your developers to improve the speed of your website for you and Google’s users.
How Fast Should A Website Load?
- The mobile version of a website should ideally load in under 3 seconds and the faster the better
- A VERY SLOW SITE can be a NEGATIVE Ranking factor. There is no set threshold or speed score to meet, just to make your page as fast as possible
- It is probably best to presume that your user has a SLOW connection capability – and aim to deliver for them a satisfying user experience as possible
- The average load time for mobile sites is 19 seconds over 3G connections. Models predict that publishers whose mobile sites load in 5 seconds earn up to 2x more mobile ad revenue than those whose sites load in 19 seconds.
- Average time it takes to fully load a mobile landing page is 22 seconds, but 53% of visits are abandoned if a mobile site takes longer than three seconds to load
- A study found 53% of mobile site visits are abandoned if pages take longer than 3 seconds to load
- In studies, Page Time Load goes from 1s to 3s – the probability of bounce increases 32%
- In studies, Page Time Load goes from 1s to 5s – the probability of bounce increases 90%
- In studies, Page Time Load goes from 1s to 6s – the probability of bounce increases 106%
- In studies, Page Time Load goes from 1s to 10s – the probability of bounce increases 123%
- In a study, the average load time for a webpage was 3.21s
- For every 100ms decrease in homepage load speed, a company’s customer base saw a 1.11% lift in session based conversion
- Users read fewer articles each day whilst experiencing delays loading each web page. The speed of the site negatively impacts a user’s session depth, no matter how small the delay
- Slow load times are one of the main reasons people abandon a checkout process
- A 2-second delay in load time during a transaction resulted in abandonment rates of up to 87%
- Two thirds of UK consumers (67%) cite slow loading times as the main reason they would abandon an online purchase
- 47 percent of consumers expect a web page to load in two seconds or less
- 40 percent of consumers will wait no more than three seconds for a web page to render before abandoning the site
- 52 percent of online shoppers stated that quick page loading is important to their site loyalty
- Shoppers often become distracted when made to wait for a page to load. 14 percent will begin shopping at another site, and 23 percent will stop shopping or walk away from their computer
- People would not return to websites that took longer than four seconds to load and formed a “negative perception” of a company with a badly put-together site or would tell their family and friends about their experiences
- A faster site should improve visitor satisfaction levels and the number of conversions
- Google might crawl your site slower if you have a very slow site (confirmed by Google)
- Retail and travel sites – 79 percent of online shoppers who experience a dissatisfying visit are less likely to buy from that site again. 64 percent would simply purchase from another online store
- Automotive retail sites take on average 6 seconds to load
- Customer packaged goods sites take on average 6.1 seconds to
- Finance sites take on average 5.1 seconds to load
- Healthcare sites take on average 5.6 seconds to load
- Media sites take on average 5.5 seconds to load
- Retail sites take on average 6 seconds to load
- Technology sites take on average 6.8 seconds to load
- Travel sites take on average 6.7 seconds to load
- Improving your desktop site speed score in isolation of developing a compelling user experience, will not magically lead to BETTER rankings in Google in the short term
- Rankings is a nuanced process and there is over 200 signals, but now speed is one of them. Know that ‘content’ and relevance’ are still primary. Website and page load speed may affect Google rankings, just not as much as high quality links, good titles & content that satisfies a search engine visitors’ intent
Read for a more meandering look at how site speed affects visitor satisfaction rates and your bottom line.
Every Second Does Count
How Much is ‘Website Speed’ a Google Ranking Factor?
‘How much is a very slow site a negative ranking factor’, historically, has been a more useful interpretation of the claim that ‘website speed is a Google ranking factor‘.
A SLOW SITE can be a NEGATIVE Ranking factor.
I have clearly witnessed very slow websites (of 10 seconds and more) negatively impacted in Google, and second, from statements made by Googlers:
QUOTE: “We do say we have a small factor in there for pages that are really slow to load where we take that into account.” John Mueller, Google, 2015
Google might crawl your site slower if you have a slow site. And that’s really bad – especially if you are adding lots of new content or making lots of edits to content on the site.
QUOTE: “We’re seeing an extremely high response-time for requests made to your site (at times, over 2 seconds to fetch a single URL). This has resulted in us severely limiting the number of URLs we’ll crawl from your site.” John Mueller, Google, 2015
John specifically said 2 seconds disrupts CRAWLING activity, not RANKING ability, but you get the picture.
John Mueller recently declared:
QUOTE: “RE: [the speed of a page] So we do say we have a small factor in there for pages that are really slow to load where we take that into account.” John Mueller, Google, 2015
QUOTE: “Make sure they [web pages] load fast, for your users. I aim for less than 2-3 secs”John Mueller, Google, 2016
and from another Googler when asked about a site that was loading in 5 seconds:
QUOTE: “I wouldn’t worry about it too much. Make it as fast as you reasonably can.” Gary Illyes, Google, 2016
QUOTE: “I guess there are two aspects here when you look at server speed. On the one hand there’s the kind of perceived speed in the browser, in the time it takes to render a page, and that is something that is definitely a ranking factor, it’s probably not the biggest ranking factor. And usually we try to differentiate between sites that are really slow, and sites that are kind of normal. So just optimizing on a millisecond basis is not going to affect anything in the search results…. the other part of server speed is more in regards to crawling, so how quickly we can crawl pages from your website, and that’s not directly a ranking factor, but it does affect how quickly we can pick up new and changed content on your site.” John Mueller, Google, 2016
In 2017 Google has stated, with regards to crawling and indexing your site:
QUOTE: “For Googlebot a speedy site is a sign of healthy servers, so it can get more content over the same number of connections. On the flip side, a significant number of 5xx errors or connection timeouts signal the opposite, and crawling slows down.” Gary Illyes, Google, 2017
With regards to the ‘mobile first index‘, Google may not immediately use mobile speed as a ranking factor, but:
QUOTE: “I don’t think we’d be able to do that from the beginning. That’s a good point though. Maybe we should clarify that somewhere…. But for the most part in the same way that we use speed for desktop I don’t see us doing that in the beginning. That’s something we would like to do in the long run but not in the beginning.” John Mueller, Google, 2016
It was later confirmed by Google that site speed would indeed be a ranking factor on mobile sites once it is fully rolled out:
QUOTE: “[Google is] announcing that starting in July 2018, page speed will be a ranking factor for mobile searches. The “Speed Update,” as we’re calling it, will only affect pages that deliver the slowest experience to users and will only affect a small percentage of queries. It applies the same standard to all pages, regardless of the technology used to build the page. The intent of the search query is still a very strong signal, so a slow page may still rank highly if it has great, relevant content.” 2018, Google,
How Fast Should Your Website Load?
Historically most of us have focused on making our desktop versions of our site load as fast as possible, but with Google switching to the mobile index first, and increase in the number of users on mobile devices, we must also now focus on mobile speed, too.
Research from Doubleclick (owned by Google) published in September 2016 by 2016 suggests: , DOUBLECLICK,
QUOTE: ‘The average load time for mobile sites is 19 seconds over 3G connections.’
QUOTE: ‘Slow loading sites frustrate users and negatively impact publishers. In our new study, “The Need for Mobile Speed”, we found that 53% of mobile site visits are abandoned if pages take longer than 3 seconds to load.’
QUOTE: ‘sites that load in 5 seconds vs 19 seconds observed: 25% higher ad viewability (and) 70% longer average sessions (and) 35% lower bounce rates’
The report concludes:
QUOTE: ‘While there are several factors that impact revenue, our model projects that publishers whose mobile sites load in 5 seconds earn up to 2x more mobile ad revenue than those whose sites load in 19 seconds.’
2018 has also produced the following infographic on page load industry benchmarks:, Google,
Recent Case Studies About Site Speed Performance
QUOTE: “Consider this: Mobile sites lag behind desktop sites in key engagement metrics such as average time on site, pages per visit, and bounce rate. For retailers, this can be especially costly since 30% of all online shopping purchases now happen on mobile phones. The average U.S. retail mobile site loaded in 6.9 seconds in July 2016, but, according to the most recent data, 40% of consumers will leave a page that takes longer than three seconds to load. And 79% of shoppers who are dissatisfied with site performance say they’re less likely to purchase from the same site again.”
At the start of 2018, Pingdom offered us some new insight on how load time affects bounce rate:
QUOTE: “From the millions of tests performed using our website speed tests, we found that the average load time for a webpage is 3.21 seconds… What we found was that, unsurprisingly, a page’s load time directly impacts bounce rate…. as soon as the page load time surpasses 3 seconds, the bounce rate soars, to 38% by the time it hits 5 seconds!” Pingdom, 2018
There are other third-party site speed case studies available to back these findings from Google, Pingdom and Doubleclick up:
- In 2016 Ancestory.com recorded a 7% positive rise in conversions after improving the render time of web pages by 68%, reducing page bloat by 46% and reducing load time by 64%.
- In 2016, A presentation by AliExpress claimed they reduced load time for their pages by 36% and recorded a 10.5% increase in orders and a 27% increase in conversion rates for new customers.
- In 2016, Artificial latency added to the Telegraph resulted in page views dropping by 11% for a 4s delay and 44% for a 20s delay.
- In 2016, The Trainline reduced latency by 0.3s across their funnel and revenue increased by an extra £8 million a year.
- In 2016, Instagram increased impressions and user profile scroll interactions by simply speeding up their site.
- In 2016, FT declared tests of the new, faster FT.com resulted in users were up to 30% more engaged with the site.
- In 2017, Zitmaxx Wonen reduced load time to 3 seconds and conversions jumped 50.2%. Revenue from mobile increased by 98.7%.
- In 2017, COOK increased conversion rate by 7% after reducing average page load time by 0.85 seconds. Bounce rate also fell by 7%.
- In 2017, Pinterest performance optimisation resulted in a 40% decrease in wait time, a 15% increase in organic traffic and a 15% increase in signups conversion rate.
- In 2017, BBC declared they lose an additional 10% of users for every additional second it takes for their site to load
- In 2018, Carousell implemented changes that reduced their page load time by 65%. This reduction resulted in a 63% increase in organic traffic; saw a three-fold increase in advertising click through rate and first time chatters increased by 46%.
- In 2018, Web Studio Sparkbox deployed performance updates and AMP Pages to their site that resulted in them improving their Driver Solution conversion within Organic traffic. This rate increased to 5.57%, which was more than double the initial rate of 2.69%.
- In 2018, Zalando completed work that reduced their load time by 100ms and this resulted in a revenue increase of 0.7%.
- In 2018, Tokopedia delivered a render time decrease from 14s to 2s for 3G connections. Delivering this reduction resulted in an impressive 19% increase in visitors; new users increasing by 7%; total sessions improving by 35%; active users improving by 17% and sessions per user went up 16%.
- In 2018, Missguided decided that for Android visitors they would remove BazaarVoice. This meant an improvement of 4s for the median page load time and resulted in an increase of 26% in revenue.
QUOTE: ‘For every 100ms decrease in homepage load speed, Mobify’s customer base saw a 1.11% lift in session based conversion, amounting to an average annual revenue increase of $376,789. Similarly, for every 100ms decrease in checkout page load speed, Mobify’s customers saw a 1.55% lift* in session based conversion, amounting to an average annual revenue increase of $526,147′ (from wpostats, 2016)
Another very interesting recent speed experiments ran at Forbes, 2016 have also concluded:
QUOTE: “over the testing period users read fewer articles each day whilst experiencing delays loading each web page.”
|Page load time||7 days impact||28 days|
|1 second slower||-4.9%||-4.6%|
|2 second slower||–||-5.0%|
|3 second slower||-7.2%||-7.9%|
Other research is hard to find but would indicate as fast as possible.
In this video from 2014, slow load times are one of the main reasons people abandon a checkout process:
Research (albeit from 2013) would suggest that slow load times are having an increased impact on e-commerce websites:
QUOTE: “a 2-second delay in load time during a transaction resulted in abandonment rates of up to 87%. This is significantly higher than the baseline abandonment rate of 67%.” Tammy Everts, Radware, 2013
In a 2012 study, it was found that:
QUOTE: “two thirds of UK consumers (67%) cite slow loading times as the main reason they would abandon an online purchase.” David Moth, Econsultancy.com, 2012
Maile Ohye, from Google, in 2010, claimed:
QUOTE: “2 seconds is the threshold for ecommerce website acceptability. At Google, we aim for under a half second.“
That claim was based on independent research commissioned by a company called Akamai back in 2009:
QUOTE: “Based on the feedback of 1,048 online shoppers that were surveyed, Forrester Consulting concluded the following key findings:
- 47 percent of consumers expect a web page to load in two seconds or less
- 40 percent of consumers will wait no more than three seconds for a web page to render before abandoning the site.
- 52 percent of online shoppers stated that quick page loading is important to their site loyalty.
- Shoppers often become distracted when made to wait for a page to load. 14 percent will begin shopping at another site, and 23 percent will stop shopping or walk away from their computer.
- Retail and travel sites that underperform lead to lost sales. 79 percent of online shoppers who experience a dissatisfying visit are less likely to buy from that site again. 64 percent would simply purchase from another online store.
Additional findings indicate that quick page loading is a key factor in a consumer’s loyalty to an eCommerce site, especially for high spenders. 79 percent of online shoppers who experience a dissatisfying visit are less likely to buy from the same site again while 27 percent are less likely to buy from the same site’s physical store, suggesting that the impact of a bad online experience will reach beyond the web and can result in lost store sales.” Akamai 2009
A decade ago, research commissioned by the same organisation claimed that web shoppers were more likely to abandon a website if it took longer than four seconds to load.
The research by Akamai in 2006 revealed users’ dwindling patience with websites that take time to show up.
Akamai claimed 75% of the 1,058 people asked would not return to websites that took longer than *four* seconds to load.
The time it took a site to appear on screen came second to high prices and shipping costs in the list of shoppers’ pet-hates, the research revealed. Akamai consulted a group who shopped regularly online to find out what they like and dislike about e-tailing sites. About half of mature net-shoppers – who have been buying online for more than two years or who spend more than $1,500 (£788) a year online – ranked page-loading time as a priority. Akamai claims that one-third of those questioned abandon sites that take time to load is hard to navigate or take too long to handle the checkout process.
The four-second threshold is half the time previous research, conducted during the early days of the web-shopping boom, suggested that shoppers would wait for a site to finish loading. To make matters worse, the research found that the experience shoppers have on a retail site colours their entire view of the company behind it.
About 30% of those responding said they formed a “negative perception” of a company with a badly put-together site or would tell their family and friends about their experiences. Further research by Akamai found that almost half of the online stores in the list of the top 500 US shopping sites take longer than the four-second threshold to finish loading.
The survey questioned 1,058 net shoppers during the first six months of 2006. Consultants Jupiter Research did the survey for Akamai.
Whether this research is 100% valid is explored by your own experience. For instance, if you KNOW that the information you need is probably on a specific web page, you’ll probably wait a lot longer than ten seconds to see the info. But if you do not…
Undeniably, though, it’s been a long-held belief in good practice website design that your website needs to load fast if you want to keep visitors happy. This research only backed this up.
And that was many years ago.
Today, Site speed is a critical area of website development and profitable e-commerce.
Desktop users expect a site to load within a second or two. Mobile users are a little more patient, for now.
See below how slow load times impact your business:
Google provides a lot of help for webmasters to help make a website faster. The following research is also provided by Google:
Bandwidth or the capacity to send and receive data is an important consideration when designing an electronic document for distribution over the Internet.
It is important that the link to the Internet (from the computer serving the pages to customers) has sufficient capacity to be able to handle the expected load.
Otherwise, the response to users will be unsatisfactorily slow.
Some people today STILL connect to the Internet over a phone line, using a modem with a speed of 28.8 to 56 kilobits per second (kbit/s).
This “narrowband” communication requires user to wait while a dial-up connection is made before they can access the Internet, and means that Internet use, when connected, is slow.
Broadband services offer significantly faster data rates, enabling the delivery of services, such as high-speed Internet access. These may also be “always on” connections to the Internet.
However, what looks great and downloads quickly within the confines of the Web manager’s high-speed network connection does not necessarily work as well for the average user of the Internet.
It is probably best to presume that your user has a SLOW connection capability – and aim to deliver for them a satisfying user experience as possible.
Then – everybody wins.
How To Speed Up Your Website Load Times
Optimise your images!!
- Remember to optimise your images – the most important thing you can do to decrease download times. Optimise just means to save for the web’ in Photoshop, for example. Keep JPGs for photographs and Gifs for images with large blocks of flat colour.
- There are several ways to optimize images and here’s one if you have Adobe Photoshop. For your JPGs, PNGs, and other files you may have that aren’t GIFs, open them in Adobe Photoshop and simply go to File > Save For Web and reduce the image to 70% (JPG) You probably won’t even notice the difference in quality, but you’ll have nearly halved the image size.
Load background images via external CSS
- It’s possible to present images as part of the background, called up through external CSS stylesheets.
- Browsers download background images after everything else. By using this technique, your text will load instantaneously, and your site users can freely roam about the page while your 50kb fancy image downloads.
- The ‘link’ is always added to the Head Section i.e. anywhere between the <head> and the </head> , add this code :<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/CSS” href=”your-CSS.CSS”>
Minimise white space, line returns and comment tags
- Every single letter or space in your HTML code takes up one byte. It doesn’t sound like much, but it all adds up. We’ve found that by working through your page source and eliminating unnecessary white space and comments, you can shave off up to, or even over (if your HTML is inefficient) 10% of its file size.
Remove unnecessary META tags and META content
- Aim to include only the meta tags your page needs.
UK Government recommendations:
‘Documents published on the web need to be kept small, be linked efficiently and contain only the data and graphics that they require’.
Guidelines for UK Government websites
Illustrated handbook for Web management teams
My Own Case Study Testing Site Speed As A Ranking Factor
Some time ago I decided to speed up the Hobo site to see if increasing page download speed had a positive impact on ranking, or the amount of traffic Google sent to your site.
We looked at an actual page on Hobo, and all the files involved in creating the page and looked to see where we could make speed improvements.
Essentially we took 299kb (Whoops!) and reduced it to an ‘old-school’ @50k target size by:
- redeveloping our bespoke WP theme template and CSS
- reducing image size
- deactivating underperforming plugins
- validating CSS and HTML
- improving the accessibility of the page
- making our form script load on only the contact page
- Gzip compression server side
- Total loading time:10.5 seconds
- Total objects:78 (299.2 KB)
- External objects:4 (3.6 KB)
- (X)HTML:1 (22.5KB)
- CSS:6 (43.5KB)
- Scripts:3 (97.8KB)
- Images:68 (135.5KB)
- Total loading time:0.3 seconds
- Total objects:12 (50.8 KB)
- External objects:1 (1.3 KB)
- (X)HTML:1 (16.5KB)
- CSS:3 (8.2KB)
- Images:8 (26.2KB)
The first place I checked Pingdom, and you can see from the images below, that we vastly improved page speed scores for important pages primarily by focusing on optimising image file size:
That was a risky maneuver because at the time we had no idea how Google would handle these ‘lazy load’ setups, where content loads on the user scrolling down the page.
So far it has all worked out – and the load time improvement the plugin affords has been worth it.
I’ll continue to focus on improving the speed of my site when I can.
This is a great video about speeding up web pages, aimed specifically at developers – and I will be using the advice in it to improve speed on this site even further:
What Effect Did Improving Page Load Speed Have On My Rankings?
Did these massive differences in download speed impact the Hobo website rankings positively or negatively?
After all, Google did say site speed was amongst its ‘ranking factors’……before all the more recent clarifications from Googlers.
Well, no, not that I measured with any accuracy in the short term.
Improving your desktop site speed score in isolation of developing a compelling user experience, will not magically lead to BETTER rankings in Google in the short term.
As many SEO said back in the day, and Maile Ohye confirmed in the video from 2010:
QUOTE: “Rankings is a nuanced process and there is over 200 signals, but now speed is one of them. Know that ‘content’ and relevance’ are still primary.” Maile Ohye, Google, 2010
Is that ranking signal and slight speed improvement justification for spending hours redeveloping your site? On its own – it was not – when you have to choose between SEO clean-up tasks, website redevelopment, content marketing or making your page more relevant in the first place.
A technical approach to improving user experience, it seems to me, would begin with site speed.
A faster site should improve visitor satisfaction levels and the number of conversions, for instance. This very well might have a second-order effect on your rankings over time – as many SEO think that QUERY COMPLETION & SATISFACTION SIGNALS are significant measurements in how Google orders search engine results pages.
To be honest, I never expected faster website load times to directly improve the rankings of my website.
I did want a faster site, though – for all the benefits I list at the beginning of this article.
I still use Google Search Console (AKA Google Webmaster Tools) and the other tools mentioned to keep an eye on website download speeds and accessibility.
Website & Page Load Speed Is A Google Ranking Factor, but….
QUOTE: ‘content’ and relevance’ are still primary’ Maile Ohye, Google, 2010
Website and page load speed may affect Google rankings, just not as much as links, good titles & content that satisfies a search engine visitors’ intent. My test above confirmed what I already thought.
A fast host could be argued to be a prerequisite, and a fast site too if your web designer has any clue.
I’m asked quite a lot these days about server speed and Google rankings. It could be part of the algorithm on some VERY minute level (why not?), but small differentials in page speed load will never be as important than the actual utility or relevance of the page you want to rank.
You can’t put lipstick on a pig, and it’s risky, long-term, to try to.
If your server is dog*&^% and your website takes minutes to load it’s a bad user experience and your site probably will not be doing your online business any good, anytime soon. And if that is the case, then site-speed will be a negative ranking for your site.
Here’s a couple of excellent videos from Google to help you make your website load faster:
Free Website & Page Load Speed Tests & Tools
There are a few excellent page speed tools you can run free reports with to help you create a fast-loading website: